"We intercepted it and we will continue to act decisively against any spillover and any infiltration of Israeli territory or airspace".
Binyamin Netanyahu and Mr Putin are believed to have discussed a "grand bargain" in which Mr Trump would drop sanctions against Moscow, and recognise Russia's annexation of Crimea, in return for help in restraining Iran.
The attack near Hader village at the frontier of the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights caused only material damage, state news agency SANA cited a military source as saying.
Israel has been on high alert as Assad's forces advance on rebels in the vicinity of the Golan Heights, much of which Israel captured from Syria in 1967 and annexed in a move not recognized internationally.
Israeli soldiers stand guard as Syrians walk into a checking room just after they crossed the armistice line to the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights to get medical treatment in Israel, July 11, 2018.
"They are treated in hospital and go back the same day", said Major Sergei Kutikov, an Israeli military health officer. That has raised Israeli concerns that he may try to deploy troops there in defiance of a 1974 United Nations demilitarisation accord on the Golan.
"Prime Minister Netanyahu made it clear that Israel will not tolerate a military presence by Iran or its proxies anywhere in Syria and that Syria must strictly abide by the 1974 Separation of Forces Agreement", the Prime Minister's Office said in a statement.
Netanyahu's government has made clear it would not cede the Golan now and has been lobbying for U.S. recognition of Israel's claim of sovereignty there.