Here are key dates in the scandal. Russian Federation will also be marked in the record books as having obtained zero medals during this Games (which, duh).
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and International Olympic Committee confirmed Rodchenkov's account.
The absence of Russian athletes would sap many events of top competitors. The IAAF suspends the Russian athletics team.
WADA's second report into doping and corruption is published.
The national plan, divised by the Independent Public Anti-Doping Commission, is aimed at tackling doping in the country.
McLaren's report showed more than 1,000 Russian athletes were involved in a broader system to dope and cover up positive tests.
Another ARD programme claims that Russian authorities have been covering up for coaches disgraced by the doping programme, directly pinpointing Mutko for his alleged involvement in the cover-up. Their uniforms will bear this name and they will participate under the Olympic flag.
The CEO of the Sochi Olympics, Dmitry Chernyshenko, also had his place on an Olympic panel overseeing the 2022 Beijing Winter Games withdrawn by the IOC.
The investigation finds the FSB helped "the state-dictated failsafe system" carried out by the sports ministry and covering 30 sports. However, this information was not was not available to the IOC prior to the Olympic Games Rio 2016.
IOC President Thomas Bach said: "This was an unprecedented attack on the integrity of the Olympic Games and sport".
Russian President Vladimir Putin has previously said it would be humiliating for his country to compete without national symbols.
In the space of one month the International Olympic Committee dishes out similar sanctions to 25 Russians from Sochi Games. Investigators say Russian officials went to elaborate means to ensure a better showing - and it worked, as Russia's athletes more than doubled their medal count by winning 33 medals (13 of them gold), the most of any country.
Mutko, who was sports minister at the time of the 2014 Sochi Olympics, remains head of the 2018 World Cup organizing committee.
"We will have to discuss this decision", he said.
"In light of the decision by the IOC to allow Russian athletes to compete under a neutral flag, I feel compelled as a member of the IOCAC to make it clear to clean athletes of the world and fans of Olympic sport, that there are no winners in today's decision", Wickenheiser said in a statement she released on Twitter.