Prime Minister Narendra Modi welcomed him at the airport.
Abe was accorded a ceremonial reception on his arrival at the Ahmedabad Airport, on Wednesday.
They also visited heritage site- Sidi Saiyad Ni Jali at Mosque in the old city area.
It is expected to run on an average speed of 250 km per hour, with a top speed of around 320 km per hour - more than double the maximum speed of the fastest train in India.
The two prime ministers will visit Sabarmati Ashram, established by India's freedom icon Mahatma Gandhi on the banks of the Sabarmati river.
The two leaders are likely to discuss ways to enhance "multifaceted" relations between the two countries and carry forward their special strategic and global partnership during their discussion.
The leaders will lay the foundation stone of the high-speed rail network between Ahmedabad - the capital city of Modi's home state - and India's financial hub of Mumbai on September 14, a statement by the Gujarat government said Saturday.
Japanese and US officials are coordinating Trump's itinerary for a Japan visit, centering on the period from November 4 to 6, and including a meeting with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, the sources said.
Japan is also important for India as a strategic deterrent to China as it was one of the few countries which came out in India's support during the Doklam stand-off with China.
The new Railways Minister, Piyush Goyal, has said that the first bullet train is expected to be functional on August 15, 2022, the day India will complete 75 years of Independence. Earlier PM Modi and Abe had met for 10 times including four crucial summit meetings. 24 of the bullet will reportedly be imported from Japan.
Abe is seen as a friend of India and ties between India and Japan have warmed dramatically since Abe's re-election as prime minister in December 2012.
According to an official itinerary, both the Prime Ministers would fly into Ahmedabad on Wednesday afternoon and will be taken straight to Mahatma Gandhi's Sabarmati Ashram.
Modi and Abe would then have dinner at "Agashiye" restaurant located near the mosque, Patel added.
"I want us to take a big step so that this "Shinkansen" project, which heralded the start of Japan's own rapid economic growth, will serve as a spark for further growth in India", he told reporters before leaving from Haneda airport in Tokyo.