A three-match ban would rule Alli out of the upcoming qualifiers against Slovenia and Lithuania, as well as potentially the first game of next year's World Cup in Russian Federation should England qualify.
Elsewhere in the squad, Southampton goalkeeper Fraser Forster is also included, coming in for Burnley's Tom Heaton who is now sidelined with a shoulder injury.
The 21-year-old Alli made a gesture in England's 2-1 win over Slovakia this month, a result that moved the team five points clear in Group F. He said it was not directed at the referee but at teammate Kyle Walker, with Southgate saying at the time that the two players "have a odd way of communicating". "We hope common sense prevails", said Southgate, who said England would consider appealing any suspension.
"I have had a good chat with Dele".
Even if Alli can not play next week, Southgate wants to keep the Spurs man integrated in his squad given his status as one of England's key players.
Delph last played for England against Spain in November 2015.
"Of course we always talk about players being role models, and in the calmness of sitting here and in the calmness of most day-to-day situations you're able to fulfil that", he said. He was very important for a period under Roy Hodgson and he has had injury issues. "We hope to have him available".
Leicester City defender Harry Maguire keeps his place after being called for the first time in last month's fixtures, while Southampton goalkeeper Fraser Forster replaces Tom Heaton.