The launch came less than a day after a massive military parade in the North Korean capital that was widely viewed in world capitals as a show of force by the government of Kim Jong Un.
A total of 56 missiles of 10 types were displayed, culminating in enormous rockets on articulated trailers and on 16-wheel vehicles.
US officials told The Associated Press that the administration had settled on a policy that will emphasize increasing pressure on Pyongyang with the help of China, North Korea's only major ally, instead of military options or trying to overthrow Kim's regime.
China's state-run media warned that the U.S. President was mistaken if he believed that piling military pressure on North Korea would resolve the regime's nuclear and ballistic missile programmes.
North Korea exhibited its ballistic missiles and other military weaponry during a huge parade on Saturday to celebrate its founder's birthday.
The country also used the opportunity to show off an alleged submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) and a new intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM), called Pukguksong-2. It is likely the current leader, his grandson Kim Jong Un, will make an appearance.
Outside analysts consider Choe to be North Korea's number two official.
"I have great confidence that China will properly deal with North Korea", he tweeted."If they are unable to do so, the US, with its allies, will!"
His visit comes amid tensions over North Korea's aggressive flaunting of its nuclear and missile program.
President Donald Trump recently hosted Chinese President Xi Jinping, a meeting Trump says went well.
"We call on all parties to refrain from provoking and threatening each other, whether in words or actions, and not to let the situation get to an irreversible and unmanageable stage", Wang said, according to official news agency Xinhua.
That means the much-anticipated April 15 North Korean holiday has ended without any event that would trigger a possible US attack, and therefore, possible World War III.
After inspecting an honor guard, Kim, in a black suit, watched the parade pour into Kim Il-Sung Square, accompanied by top military and party leaders, state television showed in a live broadcast.
North Korea, still technically at war with the South after their 1950-53 conflict ended in a truce but not a treaty, has on occasion conducted missile or nuclear tests to coincide with big political events and often threatens the United States, South Korea and Japan.
Kim Jong Un, a 30-something leader who took power in late 2011 after the death of his father, Kim Jong Il, emphasises nuclear weapons as the foundation of his national defence strategy.
Despite Sunday's failure, the North's previous claim to have used "standardized" warheads has led to worries that it was making headway in its push to develop small and sophisticated warheads to be topped on long-range missiles.
Other military hardware at the parade included tanks, multiple rocket launchers and artillery, as well as a solid-fuel missile created to be fired from submarines.
Recent satellite imagery suggests the country could conduct another underground nuclear test at any time.
It has carried out five nuclear tests - two of them past year - and multiple missile launches, one of which saw several rockets land in waters close to Japan last month.